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What gave birth to the Meiji period?

In 1853, Commodore Perry and his squadron of American ships appeared in Uraga Bay to press for the opening of the country, leaving in their wake a domestic crisis over whether to open up "revere the emperor and expel the barbarians."
Even Satsuma (now Kagoshima Prefecture) and Choshu provinces (now Yamaguchi Prefecture), which eventually overthrew the bakufu, initially supported the move to "revere the emperor and expel the barbarians," but eventually, with their growing knowledge of the Western power, they decided to switch their allegiance toward the drive to open up the country.
On the one hand, the masses were suffering under inflation, and riots and attacks on shops of wealthy merchants occurred in various regions, weakening the foundations of the bakuhan system.
This led in 1867 to the relinquishing of power by the 15th Tokugawa shogun, Yoshinobu, to the imperial court.
A decree was made which established a government centered around the emperor, bringing to a close the long-lasting feudal system.
This is how the Meiji period came into being.